Course Descriptions


Basic Excel Course

This training will cover computer operation fundamentals and the basics of Excel, as used by water and wastewater treatment plant operators and other system personnel. Participants will learn the basics of Excel spreadsheets. This course is recommended for operators and others with some working experience with computers.  Each attendee will be working on a dedicated laptop computer as provided by VRWA throughout the training session. Registration limit of 10 individuals per session, first come first basis.

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2019 Annual Conference and Trade Show

Earn up to 3.5 TCHs, water and wastewater. Register on our home page. 8-9: Controlling your Plant- How a SCADA system works, doesn't work, and shouldn't work (1tch) These days our facilities are often controlled by SCADA systems and programmable logic controllers. Learn about what you can expect out of your SCADA system, what you can’t expect out of your SCADA system and how to apply troubleshooting techniques. Presenter: Tom Allen (LCS Controls, Inc) 9:30 – 11: USDA and FED Funding review (1.5 tch) This panel session will provide information on the sources of funding for your system’s infrastructure upgrades. Representatives from the State of Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation and USDA Rural Development. They will present details on the given funding opportunities and processes associated with securing financing and any new requirements. Presenters: Ashley Lucht (ANR FED), Misty Sinsigalli (USDA), & Andrea Ansevin-Allen (USDA) 9:30-11:00: Management Issues in the 21st Century Roundtable (1.5 tch Being an operator in the 21st century has its own set of challenges. Join us as we discuss many topics including: succession planning, talking to the public, working with local media, aging infrastructure, working alongside unions, and other topics. The roundtable will allow for time for attendees to ask questions. Presenters: Matt Dow (Burlington WW System), Jon Thornton (Barton Water System), Margaret Dwyer (Stratton Water Department), & Gail Tiffany (Bennington Wastewater) 1:15-2:15: Canaan Water System Upgrade: (1tch) The Canaan Fire District 1 Water System, nestled in the remote northeast corner of Vermont, is wrapping up a multi-year infrastructure improvements project that involved replacement of the system’s source, storage, treatment, and distribution infrastructure. Join April Busfield, the Fire District’s certified operator, for a discussion about her experiences and involvement in planning, construction, of the improvements while also maintaining continuity of water system operations. Presenters: Pat Smart (DWGWP) and April Busfield (Canaan Water System) 1:15-2:15: Navigating Procedures on the Office of Professional Regulation (OPR) Web Site (1tch) This session will describe the procedures for online licensing, license renewal, and testing. Learn the different agencies involved in testing and responsible for the different aspects in testing. Presenters: Dave DiDomenico, DEC Wastewater Program Tara Grenier, Office of Professional Regulation

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Exam Preparation

Advanced Operator’s Certification Class 3&4

This training program is designed for new Class 3 & 4, for those training to become operators. The program will prepare individuals to take the Vermont State Class 3 & 4 water operator certification exams. All aspects of water operations are covered during this multi-week course. Attendees are expected to attend all the given sessions. The following texts are required for this course and can be ordered directly from VRWA: AWWA Water Treatment 3 & 4 ∙ AWWA Water Treatment Operator Training Handbook ∙ AWWA Operator Certification Study Guide ∙ Math Handbook

Distribution Course

This course is designed for those involved with the distribution of potable water who are seeking a Class D certification. The texts for this course will be: AWWA Transmission and Distribution ∙ Math Handbook for Water System Operators ∙ AWWA Operators Certification Study Guide. Topics in this class will include: Distribution certification, Water Supply Rule, Water sampling procedures, Basic water chemistry, Water hydraulics, Distribution system design, Tank design, Blueprint reading, Pumps and pumping, Valve operation and maintenance, Cross connections, Hydrants and flushing program, Meters and backflow, Leak detection, VOSHA regulations, Instrumentation and controls & Water mathematics

Exam Preparation Course (Class 3/4/D)

This course is designed as a short review for water operators prior to the Exam. The course will review Class 3, 4 and D water system operations. We will review testing theory, math questions, exam questions, and general water system operator questions. There will be a group exam taken during the course.

Operations Refresher for Advanced Exam Review

This class is a review of important topics such as pumps, treatment, hydraulics and pressures.  The course will briefly cover information that is often found on Class 3, 4 and D operator exams. Priority will be given to those operators taking one of those exams in May.

Small Systems Class 2 Water Operator Certification Course

This course is designed for those who will be taking the VT Class 2 Water Operator Certification Exam. The eighteen hour class provides a survey of aspects of operating a small public water system using groundwater as a source. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) requirements, sampling water sources, well construction, source protection, storage, distribution, hydraulics, cross-connections, safety, disinfection, treatment, and water math will be covered. This course is using a new book: Introduction to Small Systems by Skeet Arasmith and all training materials are covered by the course cost. This class is not designed for the operators of Transient Systems (TNCs) *BRING A LUNCH*

Small Systems Exam Preparation Course

This course is designed as a short review for water operators prior to the exam.  The course will review Class 2 water system operations. We will review testing theory, math questions, exam questions, and general water system operator questions. There will be a group exam taken during the course.

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3-Day Wastewater Math Class

This 3 day comprehensive math class will assist operators in streamlining their operations and will prepare operators for all grades of exam preparations.  The following will be covered: conversions, area/volume, detention time, pounds, pounds per day, velocity, hydraulic loading, organic loading, solids loading, percent solids recovery,  chemical dosing, activated sludge (SVI, F:M, SRT/MCRT), anaerobic digesters and pumping. This instructor is an excellent nationally recognized trainer, with unique math teaching skills. Students are strongly recommended to take all 3 days of classes. Please bring a calculator.    

Basic Math for Water and Wastewater Operators

This is a basic math course for operators. The formulas covered will be area, volume, psi, temperature and detention time.

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Operations and Maintenance

1+1=3: How To Vastly Improve Your Anaerobic Digester Biogas Production

You can maximize your anaerobic digester energy outputs by feeding high strength wastes and feedstocks. By increasing methane production your digester can become truly self sufficient even in winter months. Extra energy production could also warrant the capital investment of co-generation and generate revenue. Lets make our wastewater facilities more efficient!

2-Day Wastewater Sampling and Daily Lab Procedures

A great class for new operators or those needing a refresher. Your analytical data is useless if proper sampling and sound laboratory techniques have not happened. We will be covering sampling locations, proper lab techniques, equipment calibrations, quality assurance, calculations and reporting practices for the analysis of pH, Total Residual Chlorine and Settleable Solids. This is an excellent opportunity to learn from a person who has been evaluating laboratory procedures throughout New England for over 25 years. Bring lunch (coffee and snacks provided)

Biological Nutrient Removal

An in-depth review of the bacteria and operational conditions that are involved in the removal of nitrogen and phosphorus from the activated sludge process. The course reviews nitrification, the different forms of nitrification, troubleshooting nitrification and operational measures to promote nitrification. Also reviews denitrification, the occurrence of denitrification or an anoxic condition, troubleshooting denitrification and operational measures to promote denitrification. Biological phosphorus release in an anaerobic/fermentative zone and biological phosphorus uptake in an aerobic/oxic zone by poly-P bacteria are presented as well as operational conditions to promote biological phosphorus removal.

Chemical Feed Pumps

This seminar covers the proper operation and troubleshooting of chemical feed pumps used in water systems. Also covered are types of pumps, sizing, chemical strength, chemical control, and system chemicals.

Comprehensive Water and Wastewater Chemistry With Jar Tests

Discussion on all aspects of water chemistry: Pre-oxidation, Coagulation, Flocculation, pH control, Disinfection, Dewatering, Corrosion Control.  Jar testing will include math for dilutions, parameter testing, and calculation of pump settings for scale up to production.

Corrosion Control

Corrosion issues water operators face: This training session will focus on distribution system corrosion and methods to combat it. Topics covered include: what is corrosion and what causes it, why some waters are more corrosive than others, problems corrosion causes, lead/copper rules, using phosphates and pH adjustment to combat corrosion. This session focuses on the use of polymer for solids separation. Topics covered are what is polymer and how does it work, storage and handling, mixing and using polymer, how to make adjustments, spill clean-up. How Setting Goals Can Impact Your Plant and Your Life: Setting goals is an easy and extremely effective way to make a huge difference in your work and life. In this short session we’ll cover what a goal is and how to go about achieving it.

Did You Forget About Your Collection System?

While out of sight, our collection systems cannot be out of mind! This timely and comprehensive class covers how to keep your collection system functioning properly and your community in compliance and out of trouble.  Operations, Management and Emergency Response Plans, Power Failure Plans, wastewater ordinances, setting up maintenance/cleaning record schedules, asset management tools and sampling your collection systems will all be covered. Public notification of untreated or unpermitted discharges will also be covered. Instructors from the State of Vermont O & M section will  ensure that operators have all of the tools needed to be in compliance with collection system oversight.

Discharges From Breweries and Food Industries To Your WWTF

Discharges from breweries and specialty food industries have been rapidly growing in Vermont in the past decade.  The process wastewater discharged by these industries is very different from domestic sewage. The discharges from these industries into your municipal WWTF can have significant impacts on its ability to properly treat wastewater, operational costs, and the ability to connect future projects to your system.   This class will provide an understanding of the pollutants discharged from these industries, the impacts on your WWTF, and how to work with these industries to reduce their impacts on your facility. Plus guidance on steps a municipality can take to control and protect itself from their impacts and recoup operational costs.  This is a great class from a former long time staff member of VT ANR’s wastewater management program and will provide you the knowledge to assess and limit the impact of these industries before problems occur at your WWTF.

Drinking Water Operator Sample Training

How to sample? Where to sample? When to sample? This training will go through sampling and monitoring requirements of Community and Non-Transient Non-Community drinking water systems focusing on Phase II/V Chemical Contaminants, Lead and Copper, and Disinfection Byproducts. In this training, operators will learn the background behind their water system’s monitoring requirements and help them to read, understand, and follow their system’s monitoring schedule, learn what coding means and what coding to use on laboratory paperwork, and other topics necessary to remain in compliance with monitoring requirements of important drinking water regulations.

Effective Utility Management

This workshop is designed to assist utilities in addressing the challenges and improving the management of their operations and infrastructure. Topics will include: How to deliver increasingly efficient and higher quality services. How to improve long-term sustainability and increase resiliency. How to use the Rural and Small Systems Guidebook to Sustainable Utility Management to make improvements at your system. Through group and individual exercises, including team and self-assessments, participants will learn how utilities can make improvements in ten key management areas, with a focus on their most pressing challenges. *BRING A LUNCH*

How To Handle The Media—In Good Times and In Bad

Public relations and crisis communications are often overlooked at the utility setting. However, by being proactive with both public relations, and incorporating social media, a utility can establish positive and productive relationships with their customers, city/town officials, news reporters, and the general public. This award-winning course was developed to provide water utility employees with practical, classroom-based instruction supplemented with interactive exercises on how to conduct a well-rounded public/media relations program.

How To Prepare For A Sanitary Survey

Designed for all water systems required to have a sanitary survey of their water system by the Drinking Water and Groundwater Protection Division, this seminar covers all aspects of a sanitary survey and how the water system operator can prepare for one. Topics covered include record keeping, source, treatment, disinfection, storage and distribution components that will be inspected during the survey. Sanitary surveys are designed to ensure that water systems are in compliance with the Water Supply Rule and provide safe drinking water to consumers.

Informational Network For Local Operators (INFLO) Updating Your Sewer Use Ordinance Roundtable

This INFLO session will be an open forum roundtable discussion on updating your Sewer Use Ordinance. Who better to learn from than the wastewater operators and managers that have dealt with ordinances to protect their system and manage its assets. Issues discussed will include controlling high strength wastes, surcharges, public relations, capital costs, operation and maintenance costs.  

Informational Network For Local Operators (INFLO) Rotating Biological Contactors (RBC’s) Roundtabl

This INFLO session will be an open forum roundtable discussion on the operation of RBC’s. Who better to learn from than the wastewater specialists and managers in the field that operate these types of systems. Discussion on general operating parameters, winter operations, process control & testing, troubleshooting and maintenance will be some of the topics to be discussed. Following the roundtable discussion there will be a tour of the Windsor’s RBC facility with a design capacity of 1.13 mgd

Informational Network For Local Operators (INFLO) Sequential Batch Reactors (SBR’s) Roundtable

This INFLO session will be an open forum roundtable discussion on on the operation of SBRS. Who better to learn from than the wastewater specialists and managers in the field that operate these types of systems. Discussion on general operating parameters, winter operations, process control testing, troubleshooting and maintenance will be some of the topics to be discussed. Following this session there will be an opportunity to tour the Middlebury 2.2 mgd Aqua Aerobics SBR Treatment Plant

Keep Your Systems Sustainable

Learn how to protect your water and wastewater assets by setting up budgets, having effective rates, planning for capital replacements and understanding the allocation process. This class will help you ensure the sustainability of your municipal water and wastewater infrastructure.

Lagoon System Operations with Discussion on Nitrogen and Phosphorous Removal

This in-depth seminar will cover proper operation and troubleshooting of aerated lagoons. Learn the importance of good aeration, proper mixing, sludge removal and algae control in your lagoon process operation. Also hear about capacity increasing BOD treatment, “painless” sludge removal and algae control using barley straw. Discussion on nitrogen and phosphorous removal.  A great review for certification exams. Bring lunch (coffee and snacks provided)

Leak Detection and Pipe Locating—With Hands-On Experience

This course is designed to help operators use equipment for leak detection and pipe location.  From identifying appropriate tools to how the tools work, this course will educate Water Systems Operators on different methods of identifying water system leaks and pipe location. Also, new technologies in equipment that allow integrating asset management, mapping, and GIS information with leak detection programs will be discussed.

Metering In The 21st Century

This course will bring you through the first meters used at water systems through today. It will discuss direct reading units, mobile and fixed network metering. The course will also review billing and accurate reading of meters along with how to correctly read meters and how to install and proper sizing of meters. We will look at testing and changing out meters and a brief discussion on no-lead changes. Be prepared for an entertaining look at metering.

Operation & Maintenance Manuals—Hands On Workshop

Bring your current O&M Manual. In this training, we will review the state template, where to find the information needed, and how to organize your document. There will be limited time to work on your system O&M Manual and ask specific questions.

Operation, Maintenance and Troubleshooting of Pretreatment Facilities

Why pretreatment is necessary, maintenance, operation, troubleshooting and do's and don'ts at your facility. Although this session is geared towards operators of pretreatment facilities, it will be useful to operators to better understand how these facilities are operated.

Optimize Your Water And Wastewater Pump Stations

Water and wastewater operators and managers will learn how to effectively maintain and operate pump stations. Electrical components and failures will be covered in detail. We will cover basic hydraulic principles of centrifugal pumps, focusing on common problems, learning to detect, troubleshoot and make repairs. Proper planning will prepare you for breakdowns and the unexpected. This is a great class for exam preparation.

Preparing For A Sanitary Survey: For Small Systems

Designed for small water systems required to have a sanitary survey of their water system by the Drinking Water and Groundwater Protection Division. This seminar covers all aspects of a sanitary survey and how the water system operator can prepare for one. Topics covered include record keeping, source, treatment, disinfection, storage and distribution components that will be inspected during the survey. Sanitary surveys are designed to ensure that water systems are in compliance with the Water Supply Rule and provide safe drinking water to consumers. This course will have an onsite walk through of a Transient Non-Community Water System at the end of the course.

Process Control of the Sequencing Batch Reactor

Reviews the biology and chemistry of each phase of an operational cycle of an SBR. Biological and chemical events include: 1) cBOD reduction using dissolved oxygen and nitrate, 2) nitrification, 3) denitrification, 4) biological phosphorus release, 5) biological phosphorus removal, 6) control of undesired filamentous organisms, and 7) chemical precipitation of phosphorus.   Troubleshooting SBR’s with respect to: 1) occurrence, 2) detection, and 3) correction. Operational problems reviewed include: 1) undesired filamentous organism growth, 2) nutrient deficiency, 3) “clumping,” 4) dispersion of solids, 5) significant increase in percent MLVSS, 6) foam production and accumulation, and 7) slime bulking.

Replacement Planning, Mapping, and Identification of Distribution Lines

As one of the oldest municipal water systems in Vermont, Bennington has a long history in controlling for and eliminating legacy lead pipe. In this training course, learn how MSK Engineering & Design has taken a GIS-based approach to identify, map and develop replacement plans for 1,600 full, partial, and potential lead service lines in Bennington. Topics covered: lead in drinking water, open-source GIS, GIS- and cloud-based asset management, methods for consolidating tabular records, web mapping for non-programmers, on-site lead test and identification methods, customer and community outreach strategies, replacement program strategies.

Review of Pumps, Treatment, Hydraulics, Pressures and Other Topics Important for Operations

This class is a one-day refresher of some important topics based on information received by operators taking the Class 3, 4 and D exams.  The course will review basic information that is found in Exams offered by the DWGWP Water Operator Exams. Priority seating will be offered to those operators taking the exam in May.

Sampling Seminar

Designed for water and wastewater operators or representatives of these systems, this seminar covers sampling protocol and recommended procedures will be covered in detail. Reviewing basic sampling on chemical, bacteriological samples. BOD, TSS, and other frequently sampled constituents. Updating your Field Form/Chain-of-Custody for labs.  It will also cover monitoring requirements in residuals certifications and npdes permits and delve into some details on sampling methods for matrices such as sludges, soils, groundwaters, and/or ww influents/effluents. Discussion of Proficiency Testing - what it is, why it is required, how it should be reported, and a review of frequently asked questions.

Surface Water Treatment Course (Package Plants)

This training will tour a package plant and cover a brief history and anatomy of surface water treatment, including: -Treatment optimization, upgrades, and expansions -Maintenance -Clarifier and backwash -Performance of package plants

The Chemicals of Water Treatment Workshop

This workshop is designed to be a discussion with Water Treatment Plant operators on the common chemicals used at Vermont’s water treatment plants. Chemicals discussed will be those used for coagulation, such as alum, polyaluminum chloride and organic polymers; oxidation, such as chlorine and permanganate; and corrosion control, such as sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, orthophosphate and polyphosphate. For each chemical, we will explore its properties, chemistry, and use. Attendees should be prepared to discuss their own experience with chemicals they use, including how they are stored, fed into raw and finished water, and monitored. This workshop will emphasize how to recognize and deal with problems related to the use of treatment chemicals.

TNC Coliform Sampling Class

This 3-hour class is specially designed for transient non-community (TNC) water system operators. Partnering with the VT Department of Health Laboratory, the VT DWGWP TNC Program presents a detailed training session about total coliform bacteria sample collection and analysis. In the first half of the course, operators will learn why sampling for total coliform bacteria is required, how monitoring schedules are determined, choosing your sample locations, best practices for sample collection and handling, what coding means and what coding to use on laboratory paperwork, and other topics relevant to total coliform bacteria monitoring.  During the second half of the course, operators will receive a tour of the Vermont Department of Health laboratory for a behind-the-scenes perspective of sample receipt, analysis, and reporting.

TNC Operations

This course is designed for Transient Non-Community (TNC) Water System Operators. No matter what your experience as a water system operator, this course will help you better manage your water system. For Class 1B operators, this course will fulfill the requirement to obtain 3 continuing education credits prior to renewal of your certification. The course will review the following topics: disinfecting your water system (UV and chlorine); sampling procedure and sampling schedules; sanitary survey review; common water system deficiencies; rules and regulations (current and upcoming rules); discussion of seasonal operations; basic site investigations.

Troubleshooting Water and Wastewater Control Systems

Learn how to troubleshoot your automated water and wastewater systems. These days our facilities are often controlled by scada systems and programmable logic controllers. Learn how these systems integrate with field control wiring to keep them operating as designed. You will be learning how to read control schematics and apply troubleshooting techniques from instructor Dan Pratt of Pratt and Smith Electric Inc. Dan is a master electrician and control panel builder with extensive experience in the water and wastewater fields.

Understanding Your Motor Control Panels

Water and wastewater operators, while not electricians, need to understand these critical components and possess the skills to troubleshoot problems. Also a great review class for exams as electrical theory, formulas and safety will be covered in detail. This is a hands on class, work stations with actual control panels will be used. Please bring your voltage/amp meter if you have one.     

Wastewater Microbiology: A Wastewater Microbiology Monitoring Program for Operators

Learn the role of bacteria, protozoa and metazoa in the treatment process along with the conditions that allow them to do their best work of removing nutrients from the wastewater. Learn how to anticipate potential treatment system upsets and to troubleshoot and correct existing treatment system problems. This Unit includes how to develop a wastewater microbiology laboratory program, tools, techniques and standard operating procedures. Learn a simplified method to identify filamentous bacteria, determine the conditions that favor their growth and methods to control and eliminate bulking and foaming caused by these microorganisms. Learn treatment system conditions that favor the growth of phosphorus accumulating microorganisms (PAOs) and how to identify and quantify them and how to monitor biological phosphorus removal processes. The course workbook recommended not required. “Wastewater Microbiology Laboratory Manual for Operators” Author: Toni Glymph, (Toni will have them available at a cost of $50 the day of the class)

WET Testing

WET Testing - Learn the how’s and why’s for proper sampling procedures, preservation, and hold times.  Learn about the procedures used in the laboratory and how to interpret the final results. What steps are taken if the results fail.  Learn about the DEC’s Toxic Discharge Control Plan a DEC representative will present regulatory perspectives on limiting toxic substances in direct discharges.

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Industrial Discharges, Pretreatment Requirements and Your Wastewater Treatment Facility

Discharges from industries can be very different from typical domestic sewage. These discharges may have significant impacts on the proper operation of your wastewater treatment facility, your ability to manage sludge, operational costs, and your ability to comply with your discharge permit. This class will discuss the pollutants associated with various types of industrial discharges, pretreatment regulations, and provide you information on their impacts and guidance on how to oversee these discharges to minimize their effects on your facility and your collection system. This is a great class from a former long time staff member of VT ANR’s wastewater management program.  

Interpreting Your Permit—Phosphorous TMDL Primer

This important session will explain components and requirements found in recently issued Lake Champlain NPDES draft permits and the corresponding fact sheets. DEC Wastewater Program staff will provide you with important information contained in the fact sheets such as the MAPP – Reasonable Potential Determinations and the role this plays in permit limits, Anti-Backsliding, phosphorous waste load allocation determinations and other discharge limitations and monitoring requirements. Explanation of requirements in the permits for Phosphorous Optimization Plans, Phosphorous Elimination/Reduction Plans, WET testing, non-compliance notifications, running total waste load reporting, proficiency testing, running annual waste load reporting and more. In preparation for attending this session please go to: Review both the fact sheet and draft permit for a system if you have not seen one yet and come prepared with questions.

New Regulations On Lead In Drinking Water In Schools and PFAS Sampling

Instructors from the Vermont DEC - DWGWP Division will examine recent state legislation impacting public drinking water systems. This training course focuses on two bills just signed by the governor: (1) sampling for PFAS-related compounds and (2) lead in drinking water in schools and child care facilities. The presenters will walk through the new requirements and what they mean for public drinking water systems. Topics will include sample collection, data review, and next steps after sampling.

Revised Total Coliform Rule

This course will look at key portions of the Revised Total Coliform Rule, which went into effect in April 1, 2016. It will discuss the following topics: major differences between the current Total Coliform Rule and the Revised Total Coliform Rule; monitoring under the RTCR, including baseline compliance sampling frequency, repeat sampling, additional routine sampling, and triggers for increased monitoring; the various new “triggers” under the RTCR; Level 1 and Level 2 site assessments and corrective actions required under the RTCR; and the various violations under the RTCR.

Water and Wastewater System Ethics

A review of ethical behavior and its importance as a Water or Wastewater Operator. The course will identify what constitutes unethical behavior and the penalties that accompany this behavior. The course reviews examples of improper practices and review correct procedures.

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Leadership In Safety

So often being safe on the job comes down to decisions we make. Equally often we find that decisions made that affect our working lives, are greatly influenced by the culture we work in. The anecdote “Employees will work to the expectations of their supervisor” illustrates this concept. In the Leadership in Safety training session, students will get a chance to understand the dynamic of culture as well as safety and health management systems and their place in the decisions that affect, not only individual safety but the safety of others as well.

Traffic Control Certification

The Flagger Certification Course was developed to provide flaggers with the basic knowledge, information and awareness to perform their jobs safely. Once the Flagger course is successfully completed (passing written exam with 80% or better), the student will receive a certificate certifying their training to perform as a qualified Flagger.

VOSHA Safety Training Overview

Keep your employees and fellow coworkers safe by gaining an understanding of the following safety standards:  Hazard Communication, Personal Protective Equipment, Trenching, Confined Space and Lock-out/Tag-out.

VOSHA Safety Training: Overview of Hazard Communication, Personal Protective Equipment, Trenching an

Keep your employees and fellow coworkers safe by gaining an understanding of the following safety standards:  Hazard Communication, Personal Protective Equipment, Trenching and Confined Space.

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